The lungs are a pair of respiratory organs situated on either side of the mediastinum surrounded by the right and left pleural cavities

1. two surface:
                    (a)  Costal surface
                     (b) Medial surface

2.three borders:
                     (a) Inferior border    
                     (b) Anterior border
                     (c) Posterior border

Root and hilum:
The root of the lung is a short. Broad pedicle that connects the medial surface of the lung to the mediastinum. It is formed by structures which either enter or come out of the lung at the hilum.

Right lung:
The right lung has three lobes and two fissures
The right lung is divided in to three lobes(superior, middle and inferior) by two fissures oblique and horizontal.

 The medial surface of the right lung is related to a number of important structures such as:
1. Eparterial bronchus
2. hyparterial bronchus
3. superior pulmonary vein
4. inferior pulmonary vein
5. pulmonary artery
6. pulmonary ligament
7. oesophagus

Left lung:
Give a short anatomy of left lung
The left lung is smaller be cause the heart occupies the space left of the midline.

It has to lobes:
Superior and inferior. Separated by an oblique fissure.
1. the oblique fissure of the left lung is slightly more oblique than that of the right lung.
2. lingual of left lung is a tongue-like extension from the lower part of the superior lobe. 
Major structures related to the left lung:
The medial surface of the left lung is related to a number of important structures:
1. the heart
2. arch of the aorta(aortic arch)
3. thoracic aorta
4. oesophagus


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